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Waste and Bulk Materials Management

Short distances to vacuum waste collection and recycling rooms make it easier for residents to sort waste correctly. During the construction phase, local soil remediation and reuse of purified excavated materials is prioritised. Construction waste is minimised and sorted.

3.1 Reduced amounts of waste and increased purification levels

Waste systems for households and businesses include organic waste grinders, vacuum waste collection systems, recycling rooms, a mobile reuse station, and an automated collection station for hazardous waste. Follow-up that has been conducted shows that developers, with a small number of exceptions, fulfil the distance to refuse chutes and recycling rooms. Short distances to refuse chutes (residual waste, newspapers, and plastic packaging), and recycling rooms, (other waste), makes it easier for residents to sort waste correctly. During the construction phase, local soil remediation and reuse of remediated excavated materials. Construction waste is minimised and sorted.

Vacuum waste collection systems

Vacuum waste collection systems handle three fractions and reduce both the amount of waste and the amount of traffic in the area. Properties shall be connected to vacuum waste collection systems at distances of no more than 30 metres from their entrances.

In 2020, residual waste in the area increased 14 per cent to 99 kg per person compared to 85 kg per person in 2019. The newspaper fraction decreased 48 per cent and the plastic fraction decreased 19 per cent compared to 2019. See table 3.1.

In Barkarbystaden, which has a comparable waste system, the amount of residual waste is higher, and sorting of newspapers and paper is lower. In Barkarbystaden, the amount of residual waste is 124 kg, newspapers 4 kg, and plastic packaging 5 kg per person per year.

In Stockholm as a whole, residual waste amounted to approximately 195 kg per person (2020). According to FTI, a national packaging and newspaper collection body, the collection of packaging has increased, while collection of newspaper fraction has decreased by around 10 per cent in recent years.

Table 3.1 Amount of waste in vacuum waste collection systems per fraction and year

Målnivå / utfallRestavfallPlastTidningar
Residual waste, kg/personNewspaper, kg/personPlastic, kg/person
20209966
201985117
201897159
201798138

The average distance to refuse chutes is 22.5 metres. Distances greater than this have been reported for a small number of stairwells and for terraced houses that were approved due to the design of the areas in question and to facilitate waste collection. See table 3.2 below. The detailed development plans for Jackproppen and Starkströmmen are not connected to vacuum waste collection systems.

Table 3.2 Distances to vacuum waste collection systems per phase, (metres)

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraSödra Värtan NorraVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraSödra Värtan NorraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedOngoingOngoingPlannedCompletedCompleted
Distance to vacuum waste collection (m)2440100IUIU
Recycling rooms

Recycling rooms are made available for fractions that are unsuitable for vacuum waste collection or organic waste grinders and with maximum walking distances of 50 metres from entrance doors. Recycling rooms are an important component in the waste collection system so that waste fractions that are unsuitable for waste collection systems can be sorted.

The average distance to recycling rooms is 26 metres. In most cases, recycling rooms are also easily accessible. The average size of recycling rooms in Norra 2 is 0.42m² per dwelling and in Brofästet it is 0.44m² per dwelling. See table 3.3 below.

Table 3.3 Distance to recycling rooms per phase, (metres)

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraJackproppenStarkströmmenSödra Värtan NorraVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraJackproppenStarkströmmenSödra Värtan NorraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedOngoingOngoingOngoingPlannedPlannedCompletedCompleted
Distance to recycling room (m)2750141210IUIU

All developers have planned recycling rooms, but the responsibility for the right fractions to ultimately be sorted lies with the property owners.

An inventory of recycling rooms was carried out in 2019 and some deficiencies were identified, for example two properties lacked recycling rooms altogether. Despite the area having vacuum waste collection systems with newspaper and plastic packaging collection, there were bins for newspapers in 19 per cent, and for plastic packaging in 41 per cent of recycling rooms in Norra 2 properties. Three of four recycling rooms and parts of Brofästet have bins for electronic waste and 60 per cent have bins for bulky waste.

Stockholm Vatten och Avfall have informed property owners about the results of the inventory and recommended that plastic packaging and newspapers should in the first instance be placed in vacuum waste chutes. It has become apparent that bins for bulky waste are a key component in the waste system because they provide a useful service for residents. Furthermore, a communication initiative has been launched in co-operation with Local Life in an effort to change behaviours in terms of sorting plastic packaging and newspapers, which will be developed over time.

Participation and Consultation/Sustainable Consumption >

Reuse

Pop-Up Reuse is a mobile reuse station that started in Stockholm Royal Seaport in 2015 as a result of an innovation procurement and has since then been further developed by Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, (SVOA). Since the service has been popular, the station was duplicated in 2020 and services are provided throughout Stockholm to facilitate reuse and reduce bulky waste. The aim of the service is to collect items such as clothing, books, household articles and more that can be used by others and return to use directly with the help of the staff. Pop-Up Reuse was in Stockholm Royal Seaport for two weekends in 2020 and was used by a total of 1,760 people. 1.5 tonnes of material went to reuse, and 1.9 tonnes of bulky waste was collected, 0.3 tonnes of which was electronic waste, and 0.4 tonnes was hazardous waste. Due to the pandemic, fewer residents visited Pop-up Reuse and no items were exchanged directly on site.

SVOA registered a considerable increase in waste taken to recycling centres in general, possibly also due to the pandemic, but also due to greater awareness in society related to the importance of reuse and household resources management.

Pop-up Reuse >

What residents think

According to the 2019 residents survey, residents generally sort a high proportion of their waste for recycling. However, they tended not to sort textiles, furniture etc., to the same extent as other waste types, see diagram 3.1.

Diagram 3.1 Do you/your household…

There is no data for 2016 regarding the proportion of furniture etc. sorted for reuse as this question was not asked.

In 2020, various communication initiatives were carried out in collaboration with SVOA, including the opening of the vacuum waste terminal in Hjorthagsberget for residents, tenant-owner associations, and property owners. However, it has only been possible to carry out planned activities in physical form to a limited extent and there have been delays due to the pandemic. Instead, more digital initiatives have been implemented. A website has been set up for residents and property owners in Stockholm Royal Seaport with information on source sorting and organic waste grinders. This collaboration will be developed in the coming years and will be conducted with vacuum waste suppliers, property owners, and Local Life.

Participation and Consultation/Sustainable Consumption >

Construction waste
Development sites

Requirements relating to developers’ construction waste:

  • 20 kg/m² GFA.
  • 100 per cent of construction waste should be sorted, 5 per cent of which can be taken to landfill.
  • The first two phases – Norra 1 and Västra – have voluntary commitments.

To date, none of the developers meet the 20 kg/m² GFA requirement on construction waste, but on average 44.6 kg/m² GFA has been generated, see table 3.4. This is partly due to developers failing to work sufficiently proactively to prevent and reduce amounts of construction waste and partly due to a lack of quality assurances during the construction phase. All developers used the Construction Consolidation Centre for waste management, the exception being Värtapiren, Norra 1, and Västra. In Gasverket Västra, which includes a proportion of existing buildings, distinction has not been made between construction and demolition waste, which explains the elevated numbers. In future phases, all developers will therefore be required to produce a waste plan.

Table 3.4 Average amount of construction waste for developers per phase

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverketVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedOngoingOngoingCompletedCompleted
Construction waste (kg/BTA)40,241,373,529,638,4
Norra 2

Diagram 3.2 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Norra 2, kg/m² GFA

Comments:

  • Due to water damage, SSM and Viktor Hanson had to discard plaster and aggregate.
  • Despite two serious water damage incidents during the project, Viktor Hanson has succeeded in keeping amounts of construction waste low by setting targets to minimise construction waste at an early stage.
  • Wallenstam pre-school has had problems with unauthorised use of their waste containers.
  • Stockholmshem planned to pre-empt the production of construction waste but had problems during the construction phase which resulted in large amounts of concrete being discarded. Another factor was that waste from external sources were dumped in their waste containers.
  • Erik Wallin and Wallenstam pre-school have not worked actively on the issue.
  • Skanska/HEBA believe, amongst other factors, that high staff turnover in the project resulted in waste being overlooked.

Diagram 3.3 Construction waste and disposal in per cent, property developers in Norra 2

Comments:

  • The largest proportion of construction waste goes to energy recycling due to the high proportion of wood and other combustible material in construction waste. Less than 5 per cent in terms of weight of construction waste goes to landfill.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Brofästet

Diagram 3.4 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Brofästet, kg/m² GFA

Comments:

  • Tobin Properties built a moulded frame, which created additional concrete waste. Faulty basement walls needed to be cut or re-cast and needed new holes, which increased waste.
  • Stockholmshem have worked actively to sort waste by reviewing goods deliveries, creating good conditions for on-site sorting and informing employees about waste requirements. Reporting has occasionally been inaccurate.
  • Besqab has worked with on-site container checks and on providing information to increase the sorting of construction waste. Site-built exterior walls and tile spills have increased amounts of construction waste.
  • Einar Mattsson 1’s statistics include construction waste from the garage shared with Tobin Properties and Stockholmshem. Moisture penetration during the construction phase required remediation and contributed to large amounts of construction waste.
  • HSB has had joint facility for waste together with another developer, which has created problems with the reliability of waste reporting.
  • Einar Mattsson 2: for 16 weeks, neither vacuum waste collection systems nor recycling rooms were available to residents. Household waste was sorted as mixed construction waste.

Diagram 3.5 Construction waste and disposal in per cent, property developers in Brofästet

Comments:

  • The largest proportion of construction waste goes to energy recycling due to the high proportion of wood and other combustible materials in construction waste. Compared to Norra 2, a slightly larger proportion of waste consisted of excavated materials, which increased the proportion reuse. Less than 5 per cent of construction waste goes to landfill.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Gasverket västra

Diagram 3.6 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Gasverket Västra, kg/m² GFA

Comments:

  • Construction waste from SISAB’s Boberg School includes construction waste from new-build and demolition work. Due to lack of space, construction waste was not separated. Construction defects resulted in concrete being transported off-site to be repaired.
  • The Real Estate Department (Hjorthagshallen) construction waste was due to large amounts of excavated materials from brick waste during construction of a facade.
  • CA Properties (Building 20): 41 per cent is demolition waste.
  • Vectura (Building 11, pre-school): A person was given responsibility to monitor and prevent mixed waste and facilitate waste sorting. Sub-suppliers collected their waste on an ongoing basis in small waste containers indoors for sorting later into containers. Waste is primarily demolition waste from the existing building.

Diagram 3.7 Construction waste and disposal in per cent, property developers in Gasverket Västra

Comments:

  • The proportion or reused materials in Gasverket is somewhat higher due to larger amounts of excavated materials.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and is sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Public open spaces

Contractor requirements:

  • 100 per cent of construction waste should be sorted
  • Construction waste that goes to landfill should be minimised

All developers sort construction waste and the largest proportion goes to energy and material recycling, see diagram 3.8.

Diagram 3.8 Construction waste and disposal in per cent, public open space

Comments:

  • Waste from construction work in public open space is evenly distributed between energy and material recycling. Concrete, metal, and scrap goes to material recycling, while wood and other combustible material go to energy recycling.
  • Demolition of old piping in Södra Värtan gave rise to larger amounts of scrap and metal that goes to material recycling. In the same project, large amounts of combustible waste were created, which meant that the proportion of energy recycling and material recycling dominate.
See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.1 Continually reduce the amount and increase the purity of wasteResidual waste: 98.6 kg/person (2020), newspapers: 5.6 kg/person (2020), and plastic packaging: 5.9 kg/person (2020).
Pop-up Reuse was in the area on two occasions and 1.9 tonnes of bulky waste, 0.3 tonnes of electronics, and 0.4 tonnes of hazardous waste were handed in.
Construction waste (developers) average amount construction waste: 44.6 kg/m² GFA.
Construction waste (public open space): 62% have gone to material recycling, 37% to energy recycling, 0% reuse, 1% mixed and < 1% to landfill.

3.2 Resource-efficient water and effluents

The Henriksdal treatment plant already extracts heat, biogas, and a phosphorus-rich wastewater sludge. By sharing wastewater streams in existing separate systems in buildings, resources such as water, energy, and plant nutrients can be managed more efficiently. More waste heat, water, and nutrients can then be recycled, which in turn creates more biogas.

Source-separating wastewater systems have been reviewed since 2011. The MACRO innovation project that started in 2015 has reviewed conditions for source-separating wastewater systems for Södra Värtan and Loudden in close collaboration with Stockholm Vatten och Avfall in various project phases. Planning for such a system in Södra Värtan is due to start in 2021.

The Urban Development Project requires organic waste grinders to be installed in all kitchens. Food waste is led to the wastewater disposal system and contributes to increased production of biogas in the wastewater treatment plant, Henriksdal. In the long term, ground food waste will be collected in separate piping for food waste (see above) and in a pilot scheme of approximately 400 dwellings in Kolkajen. Food waste is led to tanks in the vacuum waste terminal and is then transported by truck to Högdalen biogas facility. To date, all dwellings have been equipped with organic waste grinders that are connected to kitchen drains.

Innovation project, Source-separating wastewater systems >

See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.2 Water and wastewater management should be more energy and resource-efficient100% of households and businesses have kitchen waste grinders.

3.3 Circular construction and management processes

Land remediation

Land in many parts of Stockholm Royal Seaport is polluted by former industrial activity. Before soil remediation work can begin in an area, samples are taken to determine pollution levels. The most suitable way to remediate the land is then reviewed before a new district can emerge. In 2020, work was done on producing new environmental and health risk assessments for Loudden and Värtahamnen for future soil remediation work. This will create a better picture of what risks the current pollution levels pose to people and the environment and thus determine what measures need to be taken.

Soil remediation is based on site-specific guide values that meet Sweden’s Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines and methodologies. To date, 360,000m² of land has been remediated, equivalent to 28 per cent of the area, see table 3.5.

In conjunction with excavation work, ground water is sometimes pumped away from sites, so called drainage-pumping. Drainage-pump water needs to be purified before it is released into Lilla Värtan. In 2020, to further improve water quality in Lilla Värtan, the Development Administration, in collaboration with the Environment and Health Administration and Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, agreed new guide values that will apply to drainage-pump water in Stockholm Royal Seaport. The local water purification plant has experienced technical problems and drainage-pump water has been managed under contract or dealt with externally. Data on volumes under contracts are unavailable.

Table 3.5 Overview of remediated areas and drainage-pump water in public open spaces

Etapp/xxTotal20202019201820172016Up to 2015
Total20202019201820172016Up to 2015
Remediated area, m²360.00013.07931.40039.40018.20026.400*IU
Remediated area to date, per cent282827252221IU
Purified drainage water² , m³436.200³No date380.0002.8008.20026.50017.600

1 Remediated area up to 2016.
2 Purified drainage-pump water in the Stockholm Royal Seaport project’s water treatment plant.
3 From march 2015.
4 March to December 2015.
5 Developers do not request data. These figures relate only to drainage-pump water purified at the MCC.

There are substantial amounts of pollutants in parts of Kolkajen and Ropsten due to gas production that took place in the area. Pollutants consist primarily of by-products from gas production such as tar and benzene. This means that the City of Stockholm now needs to carry out extensive remediation efforts to make the land and the seabed of Kolkajen accessible to the emerging city. Soil remediation in Kolkajen and Ropsten began in 2019 under contract. In 2020, soil remediation and excavation of a former tar compartment was carried out. Soil remediation was also carried out in the area in conjunction with work for the new Lilla Lidingö bridge and at Gasverksvägen. Top soil will be excavated while deeper soil in the area will be soil remediated on site. This is done by so-called chemical oxidation with the help of persulfate in combination with lime cement stabilisation. Preliminary investigations and work are underway to see how this can be done on-site. The method reduces both the need to excavate and remove contaminated material and to refill with new material.

In 2020, soil remediation work was also carried out in other parts of Stockholm Royal Seaport. This included the removal of parts of an old tar pipeline in the Gasverket area and soil remediation in Södra Värtan.

The first phase of remediation work on the car park in a cavern under Hjorthagen is complete. This space was previously used for naphtha storage with water as a balance medium. Water has been purified with the help of air-stripper and archaeas – ancient microorganisms – that break down oil products. This method may also be used elsewhere in the area.

The development of Loudden has started and planning work is underway. Oil companies’ operations at the site ceased in 2019. Remediation to meet the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s general guidelines for less sensitive land use (MKM), is expected to be completed in summer 2022. Thereafter, the City of Stockholm will carry out additional remediation to meet site-specific requirements. Contaminated buildings related to former oil operations and storage towers will be demolished.

In autumn 2020, soil remediation started in the woods adjacent to Gasklockan 3 and 4 and Jackproppen after pollutants were found in the top soil. This has been removed and replaced with new, clean soil. When soil remediation work is completed, a walkway will be built to the viewing area above Hjorthagsparken. New trees will also be planted to replace those that have been removed.

The permit application for water activities for Saltkajen, Södra Värtan, has been submitted to the County Administrative Board. In addition, the permit application for the expansion of the island in Kolkajen has been withdrawn following the emergence of a new construction solution. A new permit application will be submitted in 2021.

Bulk materials management

To increase the amount of excavated materials that can be reused, such material is sorted locally to increase the mass balance in the area.

Contractor requirements:

  • Mass balance should be achieved

Local soil remediation and reuse of excavated materials on site is prioritized. In 2020, purification and soil remediation work started in Kolkajen. A total of 17,700 tonnes were excavated in Kolkajen. The mass balance in 2020 was approximately 49 per cent and 39 per cent in total. The reason excavated materials cannot be reused is due to there being excess mass, technical quality is poor, or that pollution levels are too high. In 2020, approximately 115,000 tonnes of rock and 29,000 tonnes of concrete were crushed. Since the beginning of the project, around 891,000 tonnes of rock have been crushed to date, See table 3.6.

Table 3.6 Mass balance overview 

Etapp/xxTotal20202019201820172016Up to 2015
Total20202019201820172016Up to 2015
Mass balance, per cent39494113283942
Excavated materials, tonnes2.123 16085.90055.900136.36049.200355.8001.440 000
Reused excavated materials, tonnes822.77031.66622.80017.60013.800136.900600.000
Crushed, tonnes1.034 500144.000123.700094.500178.500493.800

3 March 2015 onwards.
4 March-December 2015.

Region Stockholm and the department responsible for the extension of the metro continue to collaborate regarding bulk material management and recycling of rock in conjunction with the extension of the metro line.

In 2020, a new interdisciplinary collaboration, MASSA, was launched between KTH, City of Stockholm, the Art community and the private sector. The collaboration has received funding for four-years from MASSA – “Designed living environment – architecture, form, design, art, and cultural heritage in public spaces”. The purpose of the initiative is to investigate how artistic perspectives and values can affect the management of construction rock in new projects, i.e., materials left after blasting. A key issue is the role that public art can play in shaping habitats that arise in connection with this large-scale landscape transformation projects. MASSA may use Stockholm Royal Seaport as an example.

Mass Consolidation Centre

In 2017, gravel, sand, stone, and soil accounted for just over half of all goods transported in Stockholm. To increase the reuse of excavated materials, the City of Stockholm has developed and built a Mass Consolidation Centre (MCC) in Södra Värtan, where only mildly contaminated material is sorted and recycled. The MCC helps to streamline recycling, minimise traffic, purchased materials, and dust and noise as all sorting takes place indoors in a warehouse. Together with Ports of Stockholm, the City of Stockholm has applied for an environmental permit for port operations regarding bulk handling and handling of hazardous waste at the MCC.

The MCC has ensured that the reuse of excavated materials from Stockholm Royal Seaport continues to increase. In 2020, the MCC received 19,300 tonnes of excavated materials. Approximately 4,700 tonnes of coarse fractions have been sorted and reused from excavated materials that would otherwise have been transported to external reception facilities. This corresponds to a reduction of around 336 truck journeys.

During the year, the MCC also received climate financing for a new wet screening facility. Work continues on digitalising the supply chain.

Noise and dust are two environmental aspects that affect residents in the area. The project has worked on noise reduction measures, continuous noise measurement, and water spraying.

R&D project Quieter Crushing is also conducted under the auspices of the MCC.

Mass Consolidation Centre, Accessibility and proximity >

See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.3 Promote circular construction and management processEstablished the MCC, local purification of contaminated excavated materials and drainage-pump water.
In 2020, mass balance was around 49% and totalled 39%.
Updated 2021-10-13

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Key figures:

  • 99 kg residual waste per person compared to 195 kg per person in the rest of Stockholm (2020).
  • 28% of  land area has been remediated.
  • More than 2 million tonnes of soil have been handled on site.