1. Start
  2. /
  3. Results
  4. /
  5. 3. Resource effic...
  6. /
  7. Waste and Bulk Ma...

Waste and Bulk Materials Management

Short distances to vacuum waste collection and recycling rooms make it easier for residents to sort waste correctly. During the construction phase, local soil remediation and reuse of purified excavated materials is prioritised. Construction waste is minimised and sorted.

Here we report on and provide examples of what is being done to meet sustainability targets.

3.1 Reduced amounts of waste and increased purification levels

Waste systems for households and businesses include organic waste grinders, vacuum waste collection systems, recycling rooms, a mobile reuse station, and an automated collection station for hazardous waste. This helps to reduce heavy vehicle traffic and makes it easier to sort waste. Follow-up that has been conducted shows that all developers, with a few exceptions, fulfil the distance to refuse chutes and recycling rooms. Short distances to refuse chutes in the vacuum waste collection systems, (residual waste, newspapers, and plastic packaging), and recycling rooms, (other waste), makes it easier for residents to sort waste correctly. During the construction phase, local soil remediation and reuse of remediated excavated materials is prioritised. Construction waste is minimised and sorted.

Vacuum waste collection systems

Vacuum waste collection systems, that handles three fractions in combination with organic waste grinders reduces both the amount of waste and the amount of traffic in the area. Properties should be connected to vacuum waste collection systems at distances of no more than 30 metres from their entrances.

Residual waste amounted to 85kg per person in 2019, compared to 97kg per person in 2018. The newspaper fraction reduced by 28 per cent from 2018. See table 3.1. In Barkarbystaden, which has a comparable waste system, the amount of residual waste is 102kg, newspapers 5.7kg, and plastic packaging 3.7kg per person per year. In Stockholm as a whole, residual waste was around 216kg per person. According to FTI, a national packaging and newspaper collection body, the collection of packaging has increased, while newspaper collection has reduced by around 10 per cent in recent years.

Table 3.1 Amount of waste in vacuum waste collection systems per fraction and year

Målnivå / utfallRestavfallPlastTidningar
Residual waste, kg/personNewspaper, kg/personPlastic, kg/person
201984,810,77,3
201896,614,99,1
201797,713,27,9

The average distance to refuse chutes is 27.5 metres. Distances greater than this have been reported for a small number of stairwells and for terraced houses which were approved due the design of the areas in question and to make waste collection easier. See table 3.2 below.

Table 3.2 Distances to vacuum waste collection systems per phase, (metres)

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverketVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedPlannedPlannedCompletedCompleted
Distance to vacuum waste collection (m)244014IUIU

Recycling rooms

Recycling rooms are made available for fractions that are unsuitable for vacuum waste collection or organic waste grinders and with maximum walking distances of 50 metres from entrance doors. Recycling rooms are an important component in the waste collection system so that waste fractions that are unsuitable for vacuum waste collection systems can be sorted.

The average distance to recycling rooms is 32 metres. In most cases, recycling rooms are also easily accessible. The size of recycling rooms in Norra 2 is on average 0.42m² per dwelling and in Brofästet it is 0.45m² per dwelling. See table 3.3 below.

Table 3.3 Distance to vacuum waste collection systems and recycling rooms per phase, (metres)

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverketVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedPlannedPlannedCompletedCompleted
Distance to recycling room (m)275020IUIU

All developers have planned recycling rooms, but responsibility for what fractions can ultimately be sorted lies with property owners. An inventory of recycling rooms was carried out in 2019 and some deficiencies were identified, for example two properties lacked recycling rooms altogether. Despite the area having vacuum waste collection systems with newspaper and plastic packaging collection, there were bins for newspapers in 19 per cent, and for plastic packaging in 41 per cent of recycling rooms. Three of four recycling rooms in Norra 2 and parts of Brofästet have bins for electronic waste and 60 per cent have bins for bulky waste. To improve knowledge among property owners and housing committees, an information campaign will be conducted in 2020 in collaboration with Stockholm Vatten och Avfall.


Reuse

Pop-Up Reuse is a mobile reuse station that started in Stockholm Royal Seaport in 2015 and subsequently expanded throughout Stockholm. The aim of the service to collect items such as clothing, books, household articles and more that can be used by others and thereby reduce bulky waste. Pop-Up Reuse was in Stockholm Royal Seaport for two weekends and was used by a total of 12,880 people. Approximately 7,000 items, weighing 2.1 tonnes found new owners. Furthermore, 250kg of electronic waste and 80kg of hazardous waste was also collected.


Results of the resident survey

According to the 2019 resident survey, residents generally sort a high proportion of their waste for recycling. However, they tended not to sort textiles, furniture etc., as much as other waste types, see diagram 3.1.

Diagram 3.1 Do you/your household…

There is no data for 2016 regarding the proportion of furniture etc. sorted for reuse as this question was not asked.


Construction waste
Development sites

Requirements relating to developers’ construction waste:

  • 20 kg/m² BTA.
  • 100% of construction waste in terms of weight must be sorted, 5% of which may be taken to landfill.
  • The first two phases – Norra 1 and Västra – have voluntary commitments.

Follow-up shows that to date none of the developers meet the requirement on construction waste, but on average 43kg/m² GFA has been generated, see table 3.4. This is partly due to developers not working proactively enough to prevent and reduce amounts of construction waste and partly due to the lack of quality assurance during the construction phase. Therefore, in future stages, all developers need to develop a waste management plan.

Table 3.4 Average amount of construction waste for developers per phase

Etapp/xxNorra 2BrofästetGasverketVästraNorra 1
Norra 2BrofästetGasverket VästraVästraNorra 1
StatusCompletedPlannedPlannedCompletedCompleted
Construction waste (kg/BTA)40,241,266,529,638,4
Norra 2

Diagram 3.2 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Norra 2, kg /m² GFA

Comments:

  • Due to water damage, SSM and Viktor Hanson had to discard plaster and aggregate.
  • Despite facing two incidents of extensive water damage during the project, Viktor Hanson has succeeded in keeping amounts of construction waste low by setting targets to minimise waste at an early stage.
  • Wallenstam pre-school has had problems with the unauthorised use of their waste containers.
  • Stockholmshem planned to pre-empt the production of construction waste but had problems during the construction phase which resulted in large amounts of concrete being discarded. Another factor was that waste from external sources were dumped in their waste containers.
  • Erik Wallin and Wallenstam pre-school have not worked actively on the issue.
  • Skanska/HEBA believe, amongst other factors, that high staff turnover resulted in waste being overlooked.

Diagram 3.3 Construction waste and disposal in %, property developers in Norra 2

Comments:

  • The largest proportion of construction waste goes to energy recycling due to the high proportion of wood and other combustible materials in construction waste. Less than five per cent in terms of weight of construction waste goes to landfill.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Brofästet

Diagram 3.4 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Brofästet, kg/m² GFA

Comments:

  • Tobin Properties built a moulded frame, which created concrete waste. Faulty basement walls needed to be cut or re-cast and needed new holes, which increased waste.
  • Stockholmshem has worked actively to sort waste by reviewing goods deliveries, creating good conditions for on-site sorting, and informing employees about waste requirements. Reporting has occasionally been inaccurate.
  • Besqab has worked with on-site container checks and on providing information to increase the sorting of construction waste. Site-built exterior walls and tile spills have increased amounts of construction waste.
  • Einar Mattsson 1’s statistics include construction waste from the garage shared with Tobin Properties and Stockholmshem. Moisture penetration during the construction phase required remediation and contributed to large amounts of construction waste being created on two occasions.
  • HSB has had a joint facility for waste together with another developer, which has created problems for the reliability of waste reporting.
  • Einar Mattsson 2: for 16 weeks, neither vacuum waste collection nor recycling rooms were available to residents. Household waste was sorted as mixed construction waste.

Diagram 3.5 Construction waste and disposal in %, property developers in Brofästet

Comments:

  • The largest proportion of construction waste goes to energy recycling due to the high proportion of wood and other combustible materials in construction waste. Less than five per cent in terms of weight of construction waste goes to landfill. Compared to Norra 2, a somewhat higher proportion of waste contained excavated materials which increased the proportion of reuse. Less than 5 per cent in terms of construction waste weight went to landfill.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Gasverket västra

Diagram 3.6 Summary of construction waste, property developers in Gasverket Västra, kg/ m² GFA

Comments:

  • Construction waste from SISAB’s Bobergsskolan is included in the construction waste from both new building and demolition work. Due to lack of space, construction waste was not separated. Construction faults required concrete to be transported off-site to be repaired.
  • The Real Estate Administration’s construction waste was due to large amounts of excavated materials from brick waste during construction of a facade.

Diagram 3.7 Construction waste and disposal in %, property developers in Gasverket Västra

Comments:

  • The proportion of reused materials in Gasverket is somewhat higher due to larger amounts of excavated materials.
  • Due to flawed sorting or lack of space, some waste has been classified as mixed waste. Mixed waste is sorted and is sent for material or energy recycling. Mineral wool goes to landfill as this is currently not recycled.
Public open spaces

Contractor requirements:

  • 100% of construction waste in terms of weight must be sorted
  • Construction waste that goes to landfill should be minimized

All developers sort construction waste and the largest proportion goes to energy and material recycling, see diagram 3.8.

Diagram 3.8 Construction waste and disposal in %, public open space

Comments:

  • In general, waste for energy and material recycling is evenly distributed for public open spaces. Concrete, metal and scrap goes to recycling, while wood and combustible materials go to energy recycling.
  • Material recycling has decreased compared to last year when the demolition of Gasklocka 4 in 2018, contributed to increased material recycling due to large amounts of metal. Mixed waste is sorted elsewhere and goes to energy (62%) and material recycling (38%).

See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.1 Continually reduce the amount and increase the purity of wasteResidual waste: 84.8kg/person (2019) and 97kg/person (2018).
Newspapers: 10.7kg/person (2019) and 14.9kg/person (2018).
Plastic packaging: 7.3kg/person (2019) and 9.1 kg/person (2018).
Almost 2.1 tonnes of items went to new owners via the mobile reuse centre in 2019.
Construction waste (from developers) average amount of construction waste: 43kg/m² GFA 
Construction waste (public spaces): 38% went to material recycling, 28% to energy recycling, 19% reuse, 15% mixed and < 1% to landfill.

3.2 Resource-efficient water and effluents

Resource-efficient wastewater systems have been explored since 2011. The MACRO innovation project that started in 2015 has investigated the viability of implementing source-separating wastewater systems for Södra Värtan and Loudden. Planning for such a system in Södra Värtan is due to start in 2020/21.

Innovation project, Source-separating wastewater systems >

See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.2 Water and wastewater management shall be more energy and resource-efficient100% of households and businesses have kitchen waste grinders.

3.3 Circular construction and management processes

Land in many parts of Stockholm Royal Seaport is polluted by former industrial activity and to date, 27 per cent of the soil has been remediated, an area almost equivalent to 50 football pitches. In 2019, approximately 8,400 tonnes of excavated materials were recycled, which would otherwise have been transported at two external reception facilities. To date, more than two million tonnes of excavated materials have been handled on site and almost 800,000 tonnes have been recycled. The mass balance is about 41 per cent. Read more


Bulk materials management

Contractor requirements:

  • Mass balance to be achieved

Soil remediation is based on site-specific guideline requirements that follow the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines and methodology. Local soil remediation and reuse of excavated materials on site is prioritized. In 2019, excavation work was mainly conducted in conjunction with road construction and detailed planning work, resulting in amounts of excavated materials being relatively small. In 2019 preparatory work and pilot studies were also carried out for the upcoming on-site remediation of Kolkajen. In 2020, this land is scheduled for remediation work and thus, pollution caused by the former gas plant at the site will be removed. The total area remediated to date amounts to 346,950 m², which is almost equivalent to 50 football pitches. The mass balance is about 41 per cent. The reason excavated materials cannot be reused is frequently due to the fact that there is excess mass, technical quality is poor, or that pollution levels are too high. See table 3.5.

Excavation work occasionally requires dewatering of ground water which needs to be purified before it is released into Lilla Värtan. Due to its relocation, the City Development Administration’s own water treatment plant was not operational in 2019. Instead, drainage water was purified with the help of contractors or managed externally. In 2019, the City Development Administration, in consultation with the Environmental and Health Administration and Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, produced new benchmarks that apply to drainage water that will arise in Stockholm Royal Seaport to further contribute to improved water quality in Lilla Värtan. In 2019, approximately 380 000 m3 of contaminated water was purified by contractors, an amount that would fill 152 Olympic swimming pools.

Table 3.5 Overview of remediated soil, mass balance and drainage water in public open spaces

Etapp/xxGK42019BrofästetNorra 2VästraNorra 1
Total2019201820172016Up to 2015
Remediated area, m²347.00031.40039.40018.20026.400*IU
Remediated area to date, %27%27%25%22%21%IU
Excavated materials, tonnes2.055 90055.900136.36049.200355.8001.440 000
Reused excavated materials, tonnes797.80022.80017.60013.800136.900600.000
Mass balance, %39%41%13%28%39%42%
Crushed, tonnes890.500123.700094.500178.500493.800
Purified drainage water² , m³436.200³02.8008.20026.50017.600

Remediation of the Hjorthagen cavern car park is partially completed. All hydrocarbons have been absorbed by means of, among other things, archaeas (ancient microorganisms). Residual substances such as PFAS and PFOS are being removed via a carbon filter in conjunction with two storage compartments being emptied of water. The remediation is expected to be completed by 2021.

1 Area of remediated soil to 2016.
2 Purified drainage water in Stockholm Royal Seaport’s water purification project.
3 Up to March 2015.
4 March-December 2015.


Mass Consolidation Centre

To increase the reuse of excavated material, the City of Stockholm has developed and built a so-called Mass Consolidation Centre (MCC) where primarily contaminated material is sorted and reused.
The MCC streamlines recycling, reduces the amount of materials transported, and reduces the amount of purchased materials and dust and noise as all sorting takes place indoors in a warehouse. The City of Stockholm, together with Ports of Stockholm worked during the year to seek environmental permits for port operations regarding bulk handling and handling of hazardous waste within the MCC.

The MCC has ensured that the reuse of excavated materials from Stockholm Royal Seaport continues to increase. In total, approximately 8,400 tonnes, (33 per cent reuse rate), coarse fraction have been sorted and reused from excavated materials that would otherwise have been transported to external reception facilities. This corresponds to a reduction of approximately 600 truck journeys. See table 3.5.

With the MCC, the City of Stockholm has crushed 48,000 tonnes of rock and 28,000 tonnes of concrete. Crushing has taken place in Värtahamnen with so-called “Citynära” (City-Close) crushing. Noise and dust are two environmental aspects that affect residents in the area. The project has worked with noise suppression measures, continuous noise measurement, and irrigation.

Mass Consolidation Centre, Accessibility and proximity >


See how targets have been met
MålUppföljningsmått
TargetKPI
3.3 Promote circular construction and management process27% of the area has been remediated from soil contamination. Mass balance is 39%.

Navigate on the page

Key figures:

  • 85 kg residual waste per person.
  • 27% of  land area has been remediated
  • More than 2 million tonnes of soil have been handled on site.